Causes of loss of the word motivation can be correlated with the reasons for which the word acquires its internal form. Patterns of development of the sound system of English can lead to a loss of motivation for phonetic reasons. Phonological processes can affect the morphological structure of the word, that is, it can lead to the fact that the compound word is subjected to de-etymologization. In some cases, a more conservative graphic form can restore the motivation, lost by the sound image (cupboard, forehead), but more often the changes affect graphics.
The reason for the loss of motivation can Loss of motivation be a loss of morphemes in language (morphological cause). Thus, in the development of the morphological structure of English language morphemes tyrel and mere were lost, which led to the loss of the inner form of words nostril (nase +? Yrel) and mermaid (mere + m? Gden).
A special type of morphological reasons of de-etymologization is the "irrecognition" by speaker of the morpheme or morphemes included in the word.
Semantic cause of loss of motivation can be considered by meaningful changes of the components of speech, also occurring in the course of its development.
The desire of speakers to restore the Loss of motivation lost inner form of the word often leads to a false etymologization. Sometimes the results of this process are known as folk etymology.
Boycott – an eponym based on a personal name. Charles Boycott (1832–1897), a British land agent whose ostracism by his local community in Ireland gave rise to the word boycott.
Lynch – an eponym based on a personal name. Charles Lynch headed an irregular court in Virginia to punish Loyalist supporters of the British during the American Revolutionary War.
Nicotine – an eponym based on a personal name. Jacques Nicotine introduced tobacco into France in 1560.
Silhouette – an eponym based Loss of motivation on a personal name. Étienne de Silhouette, a French finance minister who, in 1759, was forced by France's credit crisis during the Seven Years War to impose severe economic demands upon the French people, particularly the wealthy. Because of de Silhouette's austere economies, his name became synonymous with anything done or made cheaply and so with these outline portraits
Braille – an eponym based on a personal name. Louis Braille was French musician, educator, and inventor of a writing and printing system for blind or visually impaired people (1829).
Hooligan – an eponym based on a personal name. Patrick Hoolihan (or Hooligan Loss of motivation), an Irish bouncer and thief who lived in London.
Diesel – an eponym based on a personal name. Rudolph Diesel invented the diesel engine.
Labrador – an eponym based on a geographical name. The province of Newfoundland and Labrador is one of the ten provinces and three territories that make up Canada.
Suede – eponym based on a geographical name. Suede is the name of Sweden in French.
Gypsy – an eponym based on a personal name. The people were originally known as Gipcyan which was short for Egyptian since the Gypsies were erroneously believed to have come from Egypt.
Copper – an eponym based Loss of motivation on a geographical name. It’s from Cyprus – the island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mazurka – an eponym based on a personal name. - an eponym based on a personal name. In Polish, this musical form is called "mazurek"—a word derived from "mazur," which up to the nineteenth century denoted an inhabitant of Poland's Mazovia region.
Derrick – an eponym based on a personal name. The derrick type of gallows in turn got its name from Thomas Derrick, an English executioner from the Elizabethan era.
Guy – an eponym based on a personal name. Named from Guy Fawkes (1570-1606), an English Catholic hanged Loss of motivation for his role in the Gunpowder Plot.
Ohm – an eponym based on a personal name. Named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Sandwich – an eponym based on a personal name. The sandwich is the namesake of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, the inventor of such dish.
Bikini – an eponym based on a geographical name. Based on the atoll where the United States tested nuclear weapons in July 1946; it was reckoned that the bathing suit would cause as much excitement as a nuclear bomb. This name was originally from German Bikini, the colonial name of the atoll Loss of motivation as part of German New Guinea, and this was derived from Marshallese Pikinni.
Hamburger – an eponym based on a geographical name. The term originally derives from Hamburg, Germany's second largest city.
Turkey – an eponym based on anglo-saxon word, which meant “tower key”. As you know, the medieval city was also the fortress surrounded by a moat. In this city you can get on the bridge through the gate which was locked with a key. So, the perfect “key” for these keyholes was head of the bird, known to us as “a turkey”. Initially, she did not have the name Loss of motivation of a bird, but because it is ideally suited as a key, and it was called: “turkey” (i.e.”tower key”).
Atlas – an eponym based on a personal name. Based on Atlas, son of Poseidon and Cleito, king of Atlantis. However, the more widely known Atlas is a figure from Greek mythology.
Morphine – an eponym based on a personal name. It took its name from the Greek god of dreams Morpheus.
To Xerox – an eponym based on a commercial brand of photocopy machines.
Zipper – an eponym based on name which came from the B. F. Goodrich Company in Loss of motivation 1923.
Florida - U.S. state, formerly a Spanish colony, probably from Sp. Pascua florida, lit. "flowering Easter," a Spanish name for Palm Sunday, because the peninsula was discovered on that day (March 20, 1513) by the expedition of Spanish explorer Ponce de León (1474-1521).
Colorado - the U.S. state (organized as a territory 1861, admitted as a state 1876) is named for the Colorado River, Colorado from Spanish means "ruddy, reddish".
Montana - U.S. state, from Latinized form of Spanish montaña "mountain," from Latin mont-, stem of mons. Proposed 1864 by U.S. Rep. James H. Ashley of Ohio when it was created as a territory Loss of motivation from Nebraska Territory, in reference to the Rocky Mountains, which however traverse only one end of it. Admitted as a state 1889.
Maine - U.S. state, probably ultimately from French Maine, region in France (named for the river that runs through it, which has a name of Gaulish origin). The name was applied to that part of coastal North America by French explorers. A more recent proposal is that the state was named after the English village of Broadmayne which was the family estate of Sir Ferdinand Gorges, the colony's founder.
Louisisana – U.S. state named after Loss of motivation King Louis XIV of France. The name Louis came itself from Frankish hluda "heard of, famous" (cf. loud) + wiga "war".
Список используемой литературы
1. Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов. — М.: Дрофа, 1999. — 288с.
2. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб. для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. – 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.: Высш. шк., 1986. – 295 с.
3. Бахмутова Е.А. Практикум по теории английского языка: Учеб пособие / Е.А. Бахмутова, Е.С. Коканова, И.М. Нетунаева. – Архангельск: С(А)ФУ, 2011. – 120 с. (На англ. Языке)
4. Зыкова И.В. Практический курс английской лексикологии = A Practical Course in English Lexicology Loss of motivation: Учеб. пособие для студ. лингв. вузов и фак. ин. языков. / И.В. Зыкова. – М.: Изд. Центр «Академия», 2006. – 288 с.